North American aluminium production carbon footprint drops

European Aluminium

A brand-new, third-party critical-reviewed life cycle assessment (LCA) report shows that the energy and carbon impact of aluminium production in North America has dropped to its lowest point in history. 

Since 1991, the carbon footprint of primary aluminium production declined by 49% while the footprint of recycled aluminium production dropped by 60%. 

During the same time period, the energy needed to produce primary and recycled (or secondary) aluminium has dropped by 27 and 49%, respectively.

Between 2010 and 2016 alone, the carbon footprint of aluminium production (primary and secondary) declined between 5 and 21%.  According to the report, aluminium produced in North America, which relies heavily on renewable hydropower, is among the cleanest in the world.

The Environmental Footprint of Semi-Fabricated Aluminum Products in North America LCA report, developed in cooperation with sustainability consultancy Sphera, quantifies all material, energy use and environmental release impacts over the entire aluminium product life cycle, from raw material acquisition to end-of-life recycling and/or disposal. 

The study considers cradle-to-gate and cradle-to-grave life cycle stages. The report is based on aluminium and aluminium products manufactured in North America in 2016. 

“The U.S. aluminium industry continues to innovate and find ways to produce this essential metal in as environmentally sustainable way as possible,” said Charles Johnson, president & CEO of the Aluminum Association. 

“And we’re nowhere close to done – every day, our members pursue new approaches to make this lightweight, durable and infinitely recyclable material using less energy and with lower emissions.”

According to the LCA report, raw material aluminium production – including both primary and recycled metal – represents the single largest element of the industry’s environmental impact for product manufacturing and has improved most substantially in the recent years. 

The impact of semi-fabricated aluminium production has also improved (Semi-fabricated aluminium is an “intermediate good” that has undergone significant processing but requires additional working before it is a finished product). 

Technological advancements including manufacturing process controls; efficiency improvements due to economies of scale; the phasing out of old smelting technologies; and the replacement of coal-fired for renewable electricity in smelting have all contributed to this positive trend.

“Beyond the upfront manufacturing impact, it’s also important to remember how much aluminium benefits products throughout their use phase,” Johnson said. 

“Aluminium makes buildings greener and last longer; vehicles go further using less energy; and packaging lighter, more efficient to ship and easier to recycle.”

Regional variations in primary aluminium production also drive significant differences in the environmental footprint of various aluminium products.

The LCA includes energy use and carbon footprint analysis of product types including extruded aluminium, aluminium sheet, aluminium foil, die cast aluminium, and aluminium sheet and extrusions for the automotive market. 

Making these products in regions like China or the Middle East – which rely largely on coal and natural-gas-based electricity – can be two to three times as carbon intensive as making similar products in North America, even assuming similar levels of recycled aluminium usage.

“We are proud of the fact that we make some of the cleanest aluminium in the world right here in North America,” added Johnson. “The message is clear – bolstering domestic aluminium production is good for U.S. manufacturing jobs and good for the climate.”

Increasing aluminium recycling also helps make the industry more sustainable. Making recycled aluminium is 94% less carbon intensive than making primary aluminium. Improving the end-of-life recycling rate for aluminium can also have a major impact. 

Increasing the aluminium recycling rate by 1% can reduce the overall product carbon footprint by 80 kg of CO2 equivalent per 1,000 kg of aluminium produced.

Unfortunately, more than a million tons of aluminium ends up in landfills every year in North America alone – a massive loss to the economy and the environment. The Aluminum Association is committed to increasing aluminium recycling rates and is working on multiple fronts to accomplish this goal, including advocating for new investment on recycling infrastructure and other policy changes to incentivise the increased collection and capture of used aluminium.

Last year, the Aluminum Association joined the Can Manufacturers Institute endorsing an ambitious target to achieve a 70% recycling rate for aluminium cans in the United States by 2030.

In 2021, the Aluminum Association launched the Choose Aluminum campaign to highlight how the aluminium industry supports sustainable development in the U.S. and the rest of the world.

Last spring, the association released the U.S. Aluminum Industry Sector Snapshot showing positive environmental trendlines for the U.S. industry on virtually every measure since the 1990s – a period when aluminum demand grew by 25%. And a product life cycle assessment report showed a 40% reduction in aluminum beverage can production carbon intensity since 1991. 

The ongoing campaign features videos with workers and aluminum leaders, a new sustainability website at and additional material highlighting the sustainable properties of the 100% recyclable, durable metal.

To review the full LCA report and to read additional life-cycle assessment on various aluminum products, visit

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